Technical specifications of spectrum analyzer

(1) Input frequency range

Refers to the maximum frequency range that the spectrum analyzer can work normally. HZ represents the upper and lower limits of the range, which is determined by the frequency range of the scanned local oscillator. The frequency range of modern spectrum analyzers can usually be from the low frequency band to the radio frequency section, and even the microwave section, such as 1KHz ~ 4GHz. The frequency here refers to the center frequency, that is, the frequency at the center of the width of the displayed spectrum.

(2) Resolution bandwidth

Refers to the minimum spectral line interval between two adjacent components in the resolution spectrum, in HZ. It indicates the ability of the spectrum analyzer to distinguish two equal-amplitude signals that are close to each other at a specified low point. The spectrum line of the measured signal seen on the spectrum analyzer screen is actually a dynamic amplitude-frequency characteristic graph of a narrow-band filter (similar to a bell-shaped curve). Therefore, the resolution depends on the bandwidth of this amplitude frequency. The 3dB bandwidth defining the amplitude-frequency characteristic of this narrow-band filter is the resolution bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer.

(3) Sensitivity

Refers to the given resolution bandwidth, display mode and other influencing factors, the spectrum analyzer's ability to display the minimum signal level, expressed in dBm, dBu, dBv, V and other units. The sensitivity of the superheterodyne spectrum analyzer depends on the internal noise of the instrument. When measuring small signals, the signal spectrum is displayed above the noise spectrum. In order to easily see the signal spectrum from the noise spectrum, the general signal level should be 10dB higher than the internal noise level. In addition, the sensitivity is also related to the sweep frequency. The faster the sweep frequency, the lower the peak value of the dynamic amplitude-frequency characteristic, resulting in lower sensitivity and resulting amplitude difference.

(4) Dynamic range

Refers to the maximum difference between two signals that can appear at the input at the same time with the specified accuracy. The upper limit of the dynamic range loves the constraints of nonlinear distortion. There are two ways to display the amplitude of the spectrum analyzer: linear logarithm. The advantage of logarithmic display is that within a limited effective height range of the screen, a large dynamic range can be obtained. The dynamic range of the spectrum analyzer is generally above 60dB, and sometimes even above 100dB.

(5) Frequency sweep width (Span)

There are also different methods for analyzing spectral width, span, frequency range, and spectral span. Usually refers to the frequency range (spectrum width) of the response signal that can be displayed in the leftmost and rightmost vertical scale lines of the spectrum analyzer display screen. According to the test needs automatic adjustment, or artificial settings. The sweep width indicates the frequency range displayed by the spectrum analyzer during one measurement (that is, one frequency sweep), which can be less than or equal to the input frequency range. The spectrum width is usually divided into three modes.

â‘ Full-scan frequency spectrum analyzer scans its effective frequency range at one time.

â‘¡Sweep frequency spectrum analyzer only scans a specified frequency range at a time. The spectrum width expressed in each division can be changed.

â‘¢ The frequency width of the zero-sweep frequency is zero, and the spectrum analyzer does not sweep, and becomes a tuned receiver.

(6) Scan time (Sweep Time, abbreviated as ST)

That is, the time required to perform a full frequency scan and complete the measurement is also called the analysis time. Generally, the shorter the scan time, the better, but in order to ensure measurement accuracy, the scan time must be appropriate. The factors related to the scan time mainly include the frequency scan range, resolution bandwidth, and video filtering. Modern spectrum analyzers usually have multiple scan time options. The minimum scan time is determined by the circuit response time of the measurement channel.

(7) Amplitude measurement accuracy

There are absolute amplitude accuracy and relative amplitude accuracy, which are determined by many factors. Absolute amplitude accuracy is an indicator for a full-scale signal, which is affected by the combined effects of input attenuation, intermediate frequency gain, resolution bandwidth, scale fidelity, frequency response, and the accuracy of the calibration signal itself; relative amplitude accuracy is related to the measurement method. There are only two sources of error, frequency response and calibration signal accuracy, and the measurement accuracy can be very high. The instrument has to be calibrated before leaving the factory. Various errors have been recorded and used to correct the measured data, and the displayed amplitude accuracy has been improved.

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