At present, in the color management technology, the so-called color feature connection space is the chromaticity space of CIE1976Lab. The colors on any device can be converted to this space to form a "universal" description method, and then the color matching conversion is performed. . Within the computer operating system, the task of implementing color matching conversion is performed by the "color matching module", which is important for the reliability of color conversion and whether the colors match.
So, how to realize the transmission of color in the "universal" color space and realize the lossless or minimal loss of color?
This requires each set of equipment to generate a profile, that is, the color profile of the equipment. We know that when presenting and transmitting colors, various devices, materials, and processes will exhibit different characteristics. In color management, the colors presented on one device must be displayed on another device with high fidelity, which requires us to understand the color rendering characteristics of colors on various devices. Since the color space independent of the device has been selected, namely the CIE1976Lab color space, the color characteristics of the device are as follows: the corresponding relationship between the description value of the device and the chromaticity value of the "universal" color space, the corresponding relationship is The color description file for the device.
Device color characteristic description file
In color management technology, there are three types of device color characteristic description files. The first type is the scanner signature file, which provides the standard manuscripts of Kodak, Agfa, and Fuji and the standard data of these manuscripts. These manuscripts are input using the scanner. The difference between the scanned data and the standard manuscript data reflects the scanner The second type is the characteristic file of the display, which provides some software to measure the color temperature of the display, and then generates a color block on the screen, and the color block information reflects the characteristics of the display; the third type is the printing device Feature file, it also provides a set of software, the software generates a graphic containing hundreds of color blocks in the computer, and then output the graphic on the output device, if it is a printer, directly proof, the printing machine will first output the film 3. Proofing and reprinting, measuring these output images to reflect the characteristic file information of the printing device.
The generated profile, that is, the color characteristic file, its format is composed of the file header, the mark table, and the mark element data.
File header, which contains the basic information of the color characteristic file, such as file size, type of color management method, version of file format, device type, device color space, color space of characteristic file, operating system, device manufacturer , Color restoration target, original medium, light source chromaticity data, etc., the file header occupies 128 bytes. Mark table, which contains information about the name of the mark, storage location, and data size, but does not contain the specific content of the mark. The name of the mark occupies 4 bytes, and each item of the mark table occupies 12 bytes . Marking element data is to store various information required for color management at a prescribed location according to the marking table, and varies according to the complexity of marking information and the amount of marking data.
For the color characteristic files of equipment in printing enterprises, the operator of graphic information processing has two ways to obtain them.
The first way is when the device is purchased, the manufacturer provides the profile with the device, which can meet the general color management requirements of the device. When the application software of the device is installed, the profile is loaded into the system.
The second way is to use special profile production software, according to the actual situation of the existing equipment, to generate a suitable color feature description file, so that the generated file is usually more accurate and more in line with the user's actual situation. Because the state of equipment, materials and process flow will change or shift with time. Therefore, the profile needs to be re-created at intervals to adapt to the color response at the time.
Color transfer in the device
Now, let's take a look at how colors are transmitted in each device.
First, for a manuscript with normal colors, scan and input it with a scanner. Due to the profile of the scanner, the color from the scanner (that is, the tristimulus values â€‹â€‹of red, green, and blue) to the CIE1976Lab chromaticity is provided. Correspondence relationship of the space, so the operating system can obtain the chroma value Lab of the original color according to this conversion relationship.
The scanned image is displayed on the monitor screen. Since the system has mastered the correspondence between Lab chromaticity values â€‹â€‹and the red, green, and blue drive signals on the display, the display does not directly use the chromaticity values â€‹â€‹of the scanner's red, green, and blue, but from In the Lab chromaticity value of the original in the previous step, according to the conversion relationship given by the profile of the display, the display drive signals of red, green and blue that can correctly display the color of the original on the screen are obtained, and the display is driven to display the color. This ensures that the color displayed on the monitor matches the color of the original.
After observing the accurate image color display, the operator can adjust the image according to the color of the screen according to the customer's requirements. Since the profile of the printing device is included, after the image is separated, the correct color after printing can be observed on the display. When the operator is satisfied with the color of the image, the color is separated and stored. When color separation, according to the color conversion relationship carried by the profile of the printing equipment, get the correct percentage of dots. After RIP (raster image processor), record printing, printing, proofing, printing, you can get a printed copy of the original to complete the entire process.
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